According to a report by GAVI, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, the disease Lumpy Skin Sickness (LSD), which is caused by the Capripoxvirus, is becoming more of a worry for livestock around the world. It is related to the sheeppox and goatpox virus families through its genes.
Animals with the infection lose weight right away, and they may also get a fever, and sores in their mouths and make less milk. Extra mucus and saliva coming out of the nose and mouth are also signs. Cows and buffaloes that are pregnant often have miscarriages, which can sometimes kill animals that are already sick. It has already been said that LSD can be found in India. Since 2012, the disease has been present in most African countries, and since then, it has spread quickly.
Since the virus can’t be treated, vaccination is the best way to stop it.
The virus has big effects on the economy because infected animals often get permanent skin damage that makes their hides worth less on the market. The virus has killed nearly 75,000 cattle in India and has spread to more than ten States and UTs. It has hurt Rajasthan the most.
As of September 11, about 16 Lakh animals in 197 districts had been infected by the virus. More than 50,000 deaths, mostly of cows, have been reported in Rajasthan, where the disease has killed about 75,000 cattle.
The FAO has suggested a number of ways to stop the spread of LSD. These include vaccinating vulnerable populations with more than 80% coverage, limiting the movement of cattle and putting them in quarantine, implementing biosecurity by controlling vectors by cleaning sheds and spraying insecticides, strengthening both active and passive surveillance, and educating everyone involved about how to reduce risk, and setting up a large-scale protection and surveillance system.
The fact that lumpy skin disease has recently spread outside of Africa is scary, but vaccinations against attenuated viruses may help stop this. The limits put on quarantines have not worked very well. An attenuated virus was the most effective way to stop the spread of the disease in the Balkans and keep it from getting worse.
It is recommended to use antibiotics to prevent secondary illnesses and give good nursing care, but if a lot of animals in a herd are sick, it may not be possible to treat them all.
To stop more LSD incidents, the sick animal should be kept alone and the following steps should be taken right away:
- Limit the movement of animals. Animals should not be allowed to go to or from an infected area or a state with an outbreak. This will reduce the cost of the outbreaks and help control LSD.
2.. People who work with animals or take care of hurt animals need to be told to stay away from healthy animals. So, it is very important to take these safety measures.
3.Vaccination: Cattle and buffaloes should get the goatpox vaccine, which has 103.5 TCID50 of GTPV vaccine, starting at 4 months of age and up (Uttarkashi strain). But a dose of 103.0 TCID50 can be used for preventive vaccination/ring vaccination in cattle and buffalo (the same dose of vaccine for goats against goat pox).